This study evaluated the safety and efficacy of batroxobin in treating hyperfibrinogenemia for secondary stroke prevention. Patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) were measured for plasma fibrinogen levels. Selected participants had concomitant hyperfibrinogenemia (plasma fibrinogen ≥ 3.0 g/l). Patients enrolled between 1 July 2003 and 31 December 2004 were treated with batroxobin; patients enrolled between 1 January 2002 and 30 June 2003 were treated without batroxobin. Batroxobin was administered intermittently via intravenous injection at 3-monthly intervals. Patients in both groups were followed for 1 year. Any cerebrovascular events and suspected adverse events were recorded. In total, 112 ischemic stroke/TIA patients with concomitant hyperfibrinogenemia were enrolled, 52 being treated with batroxobin and 60 without batroxobin. Six patients (11.5%) with batroxobin and 16 patients (26.7%) without batroxobin had recurrent cerebral ischemic events during follow-up. Stroke/TIA recurrence in patients without batroxobin was higher than that in patients with batroxobin (P < 0.05). Two patients with batroxobin and two patients without batroxobin developed hemorrhagic stroke during follow-up. There were five deaths (9.6%) in the batroxobin group, and seven deaths (11.7%) in the nonbatroxobin group during follow-up (P > 0.05). Intermittent intravenous injection of batroxobin can efficiently reduce the risk for stroke/TIA recurrence in patients with concomitant hyperfibrinogenemia.