VKORC1 and CYP2C9 genotypes in Egyptian patients with warfarin resistance

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Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant drug; however, a narrow therapeutic range and a high risk of bleeding or stroke complicate its clinical use. Warfarin resistance was defined as prolonged warfarin requirements of more than 15 mg/day to achieve therapeutic anticoagulation or failure to achieve therapeutic anticoagulation with more than 20 mg/day. The resistance is associated with polymorphisms of the vitamin K epoxide reductase-oxidase complex (VKORC1) and cytochrome P450-2C9 (CYP2C9) genes, which affect warfarin pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, respectively. Identification of the VKORC1 −1639 (A/G) and CYP2C9 (*1/*2/*3) allelic variants was performed using the PGX-Thrombo Strip in 41 patients with warfarin resistance compared with 30 patients with normal warfarin response out of 352 diagnosed cases of deep vein thrombosis. In warfarin-resistant patients, the VKORC1-1639 genotype frequencies were GG 0.756, GA 0.244 and AA 0.0, whereas in warfarin responder patients, they were: GG 0.333, GA 0.400 and AA 0.276 with P ≤ 0.001. The CYP2C9 genotype frequencies showed nonsignificant difference in both group of patients (P = 0.31). Our results suggest that the VKORC1−1639 GG and the wild type CYP2C9*1*1genotypes are associated with the high-dose requirement for warfarin therapy, and that VKORC1−1639 GG is responsible for warfarin resistance and failure in Egyptian patients.

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