Precise and timely detection of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) is vital for evaluating humoral immune status of patients pre- and post-transplantation.Source of data
Clinically relevant articles on theory, development, methodology and application of HLA-DSA testing in kidney transplantation.Areas of agreement and controversy
The availability of solid phase HLA-antibody testing revolutionized our ability to detect HLA-DSA and to appreciate their significance in kidney transplant outcome. The best approach to determine the strength, immunogenicity and pathogenicity of HLA antibodies still remains controversial.Growing points
Assays to identify complement-binding antibodies were developed. Their clinical utilization, pre- and post-transplantation, is currently under investigation. Appreciation of the complexity of HLA-DQ antibodies should lead to better assignment of unacceptable antibodies and cPRA calculation.Areas timely for developing research
Characterization of HLA-antibody epitopes, and utilization of epitope matching to better define compatible donors could contribute to better transplant outcomes.