The Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa raised ethical issues about structural disadvantage; the duty to care of healthcare workers; the use and study of unregistered agents; the use of restrictive measures like mass quarantine and the importance of public trust.Sources of data
WHO reports, literature on EVD and ethics.Areas of agreement
The use of restrictive measures and the testing of unregistered agents is ethical if support for individuals or communities is provided.Areas of controversy
Controversy exists over ethical trial design for the study of unregistered agents and over the limits of the duty to care.Growing points
The role of the WHO in outbreak control and research oversight needs rethinking and further support. Solidarity in global health needs fostering.Areas timely for developing research
Research is needed on how to restore and enhance health systems and public trust in EVD-affected countries.