Implementation of PSA-based active surveillance in prostate cancer

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Prostate cancer screening had led to the diagnosis of a large proportion of localized and low-risk disease. Many of these cancer cases are believed to be indolent and would not be clinically perceived in the absence of screening. In addition to that, the wide use of active treatment has exposed these patients to treatment-related quality-of-life impact. In this setting active surveillance as a way of deferring active treatment and reserving such treatment to cases of disease progression only has gained interest. PSA has been widely used to identify patients eligible for active surveillance and also for disease monitoring. The goal of this review was to describe the place of PSA in the monitoring of patients under active surveillance based on the existing studies and to discuss the importance of PSA in light of other existing or emerging tools to monitor prostate cancer in active surveillance.

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