Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study

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To compare risk of myocardial infarction associated with smoking in men and women, taking into consideration differences in smoking behaviour and a number of potential confounding variables.


Prospective cohort study with follow up of myocardial infarction.


Pooled data from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen.


11 472 women and 13 191 men followed for a mean of 12.3 years.

Main outcome measures

First admission to hospital or death caused by myocardial infarction.


1251 men and 512 women had a myocardial infarction during follow up. Compared with non-smokers, female current smokers had a relative risk of myocardial infarction of 2.24 (range 1.85-2.71) and male smokers 1.43 (1.26-1.62); ratio 1.57 (1.25-1.97). Relative risk of myocardial infarction increased with tobacco consumption in both men and women and was higher in inhalers than in non-inhalers. The risks associated with smoking, measured by both current and accumulated tobacco exposure, were consistently higher in women than in men and did not depend on age. This sex difference was not affected by adjustment for arterial blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, triglyceride concentrations, diabetes, body mass index, height, alcohol intake, physical activity, and level of education.


Women may be more sensitive than men to some of the harmful effects of smoking. Interactions between components of smoke and hormonal factors that may be involved in development of ischaemic heart disease should be examined further.

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