Renal outcomes associated with invasive versus conservative management of acute coronary syndrome: propensity matched cohort study

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Abstract

Objectives

To examine the association of early invasive management of acute coronary syndrome with adverse renal outcomes and survival, and to determine whether the risks or benefits of early invasive management differ in people with pre-existing chronic kidney disease.

Design

Propensity score matched cohort study.

Setting

Acute care hospitals in Alberta, Canada, 2004–09.

Participants

10 516 adults with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

Interventions

Participants were stratified by baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate and matched 1:1 on their propensity score for early invasive management (coronary catheterisation within two days of hospital admission).

Main outcome measures

Risks of acute kidney injury, kidney injury requiring dialysis, progression to end stage renal disease, and all cause mortality were compared between those who received early invasive treatment versus conservative treatment.

Results

Of 10 516 included participants, 4276 (40.7%) received early invasive management. After using propensity score methods to assemble a matched cohort of conservative management participants with characteristics similar to those who received early invasive management (n=6768), early invasive management was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (10.3% v 8.7%, risk ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.36; P=0.019), but no difference in the risk of acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (0.4% v 0.3%, 1.20, 0.52 to 2.78; P=0.670). Over a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the risk of progression to end stage renal disease did not differ between the groups (0.3 v 0.4 events per 100 person years, hazard ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.49; P=0.712); however, early invasive management was associated with reduced long term mortality (2.4 v 3.4 events per 100 person years, 0.69, 0.58 to 0.82; P<0.001). These associations were consistent among people with pre-existing reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate and with alternate definitions for early invasive management.

Conclusions

Compared with conservative management, early invasive management of acute coronary syndrome is associated with a small increase in risk of acute kidney injury but not dialysis or long term progression to end stage renal disease.

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