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In this study centrifugation dramatically reduced the porosity and substantially increased the mechanical properties of bone cement. Monotonic tensile tests to failure of centrifuged specimens of cement demonstrated an increase of 24 per cent in the mean ultimate tensile strength compared with the control value. Mean ultimate tensile strain was improved by 54 per cent. In fully reversed tension-compression fatigue-testing, centrifugation resulted in a mean increase in fatigue life of 136 per cent. These strong advantages in mechanical properties were obtained without any detrimental changes. There was no change in elastic modulus, setting time, or peak temperature. Handling properties were improved. There was no increase in systemic toxicity as demonstrated in dogs by assessment of arterial blood-pressure response and peak levels of monomer in the serum during simulated total hip arthroplasty. We also present a practical system of cement centrifugation and delivery that is suitable for use in the operating room.