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Thirty-three patients had thirty-four consecutive primary arthroplasties, with use of the Souter-Strathclyde cemented unconstrained prosthesis, for severe rheumatoid arthritis of the elbow. The minimum duration of follow-up for inclusion in the study was two years. Three patients died. Four arthroplasties were revised: three, because of irreducible dislocation immediately after the operation and one, because of loosening without infection. One prosthesis was removed because of a late deep infection. In most of the remaining twenty-five patients (twenty-six arthroplasties), who had an average duration of follow-up of four years (range, two to eight years), pain was markedly less or had resolved completely, and the function of the elbow was greatly improved.