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One hundred consecutive primary total hip arthroplasties performed with use of a porous-coated anatomic total hip prosthesis, fixed without cement, in ninety-one patients were followed prospectively for a minimum of ten years. At the time of the most recent follow-up, twenty patients (twenty-three hips) had died and seventy-one patients (seventy-seven hips) were living. The average age of the living patients was sixty-six years (range, thirty-two to ninety-two years), and their average Harris hip score was 84 points (range, 33 to 100 points). Twelve percent (nine) of the seventy-seven hips were found to be associated with pain in the thigh when the patients were specifically questioned by the examiner. Eleven hips were revised during the follow-up period. Only the acetabular component was revised in six hips, only the femoral component was revised in one hip, and both the femoral and the acetabular components were revised in four hips. Of the ten acetabular revisions, one was performed because of acute dissociation of the component and eight, because of a combination of polyethylene wear, osteolysis, and loosening; the tenth acetabular revision consisted of exchange of the liner and curettage and bone-grafting of the osteolytic area. Of the five femoral revisions, two were performed because of loosening and three, because of extensive osteolysis of the proximal aspect of the femur. Including the revised components, twelve acetabular components and five femoral components had radiographic evidence of aseptic loosening. Acetabular osteolysis occurred in seventeen hips. Femoral osteolysis occurred in thirty-nine hips: in the proximal aspect of thirty-one hips, in the distal aspect of four, and in both the proximal and the distal aspect of four.The durability of the femoral fixation documented in this study is especially encouraging in view of the fact that this was our initial experience with devices fixed without cement and that a so-called first-generation femoral component was used. However, the study also demonstrated that not all acetabular components fixed without cement function well over the long term and that specific design considerations (adequate initial fixation, congruency between the liner and the shell, an optimum shell-liner capturing mechanism, and a smaller femoral head) are warranted.