Costal Osteochondral Autograft for Advanced Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Humeral Capitellum in Adolescent and Young Adult Athletes: Clinical Outcomes with a Mean Follow-up of 4.8 Years

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Background:Costal osteochondral grafting is a technique to achieve anatomical and biological repair of articular defects. Some small series of clinical applications of this procedure for advanced osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum, with short-term follow-up, have been reported; however, longer-term outcomes remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify longer-term clinical outcomes of costal osteochondral autografts in the treatment of advanced osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum.Methods:Seventy-two patients with an osteochondral defect of the humeral capitellum were treated with costal osteochondral autograft and followed for a minimum of 3 years (mean follow-up, 57 months; range, 36 to 147 months). The mean patient age was 14.3 years. Clinical outcomes, including elbow range of motion, Timmerman and Andrews clinical rating score, donor-site morbidity, responses to a questionnaire regarding a return to sporting activities, and radiographic findings, were evaluated.Results:The mean elbow range of extension/flexion increased significantly, from −21°/122° preoperatively to −4°/136° postoperatively (p < 0.001). The mean clinical rating score improved significantly, from 101 to 190 by the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The overall clinical score-based assessment was excellent for 60 patients, good for 9, and fair for 3. Seventy of the 72 patients returned to their original sport. The remaining 2 patients had changed sporting activities before surgery and did not return to baseball, despite satisfactory clinical results.Conclusions:Costal osteochondral autograft successfully achieved anatomical and biological reconstruction in the treatment of advanced osteochondritis dissecans of the humeral capitellum.Level of Evidence:Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

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