To determine the role of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation (HDC/ASCT) in extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma patients, we conducted a retrospective analysis. In our previous study, we searched for patients who had received HDC/ASCT and identified 16 eligible patients and compared the treatment outcome with historical control group (n = 246). Nine patients received HDC/ASCT in the first (CR1) or second complete remission (CR2), while seven patients received HDC/ASCT as salvage. Twelve of 16 patients achieved or maintained CR after HDC/ASCT. Among the 12 patients, five patients relapsed. Estimated 2-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) rates were 71.3±12.4% and 25.8±14.3%, respectively. There was a tendency of better survival in patients who received HDC/ASCT as compared to those who did not (P = 0.091). In subset analysis, patients who underwent HDC/ASCT at CR (P = 0.049) and patients with stage III or IV (P = 0.001) had a favorable outcome. Patients with NKIPI 3,4 or EUNKTL, who underwent HDC/ASCT had more prolonged survival without statistical significance (P = 0.055 and 0.056). In conclusion, HDC/ASCT may be considered as a treatment option for patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, especially those in CR, with advanced disease (stage III/IV or EUNKTL) and high NKIPI scores.