Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in initiating immune reactions after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The two main peripheral blood DC populations are myeloid (DC1) and lymphoplasmacytoid (DC2). A new subset of myeloid DC, expressing CD16, has been identified. We analyzed the number and CD86 expression of DC subsets in peripheral blood of 18 healthy donors, before and after granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and in the inoculum of allogeneic peripheral blood transplants (allo-PBT; n=100) and allogeneic bone marrow transplants (allo-BMT; n=22). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration increased the median number of DC1 (P=0.0007), of DC2 (P<0.0001) and of DC CD16+ (P=0.0001). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration was also associated with a significant decrease of CD86 expression on DC1 (P=0.0003) and with a trend for an increase on DC CD16+ (P=0.07). Recipients of allo-PBT received similar quantities of DC1 and higher doses of DC2 and DC CD16+ than recipients of allo-BMT (P=0.5; P=0.0001; P<0.0001, respectively). Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor modifies the number of DC in peripheral blood and the expression of the costimulatory molecule CD86. This resulted in a different composition of DC2 and especially of DC CD16+ in the harvests, which might explain some of the differences observed in allogeneic reactions after allo-PBT with respect to allo-BMT.