After hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), G-CSF is commonly used to enhance stem cell engraftment to minimize the morbidity and mortality associated with prolonged neutropenia. However, there is no consensus on the optimal use of G-CSF after high-dose chemotherapy followed by HSCT. This review was performed to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of G-CSF after autologous and allogeneic HSCT. Studies investigating the use of G-CSF in comparison to control (observation or placebo), early vs delayed initiation of G-CSF, and other approaches driven by patient-specific parameters to identify optimal use of G-CSF have been reviewed. Various outcomes such as neutrophil and platelet engraftment, post-transplant length of hospital stay, post-transplant complications such as infection and GVHD, and survival have been assessed. Finally, we provide the level of evidence for each of the outcomes analyzed while evaluating strategies for using G-CSF in patients undergoing autologous or allogeneic HSCT.
Bone Marrow Transplantation (2009) 43, 895-908; doi:10.1038/bmt.2009.75; published online 13 April 2009