The influence of personality on health related quality of life (QoL) and physical functioning in the setting of allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (alloHSCT) is unknown. We conducted a joint evaluation within two independent cohorts of alloHSCT recipients to investigate the impact of personality on reported QoL and physical functioning. Two-hundred-eight patients (median age 44 years, range 18-72) of cohort 1 and 93 patients (median age 55 years, range 19-79) of cohort 2 after alloHSCT were evaluated. Personality was assessed using the 24-adjective measure (AM), which measures the Big-Five personality domains and the Life Orientation Test—Revised (LOT-R), measuring optimism and pessimism. QoL was measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy with bone marrow transplantation subscale (FACT-BMT), Short Form 36 (SF-36), the human activity profile (HAP), as well as the NIH criteria-based cGVHD activity assessment form and the Lee cGVHD symptom scale. Neuroticism was significantly associated with worse function measured by the HAP and FACT-BMT. Optimism significantly improved QoL captured by the FACT-BMT. Pessimism significantly impaired physical function captured by the HAP and SF-36. Extraversion was significantly associated with reduced depression and lower severity of cGVHD symptoms reported by the patient and the physician. The results suggest that personality traits and pre-treatment QoL assessments should be measured in clinical trials to facilitate the interpretation of QoL data.