This study sought to develop selection guidelines to determine the eligibility for SCT of patients with light-chain amyloidosis. Patients with biopsy-confirmed lightchain amyloidosis who underwent SCT between 8 March 1996 and 31 December 2011 were reviewed in two cohorts by date of transplantation: between 8 March 1996 and 30 June 2009 (n = 410) and between 1 July 2009 and 31 December 2011 (n = 89). Also evaluated were patients who died before post-transplant day 100 to determine the features predictive of early death. After 1 July 2009, fewer transplant recipients had Mayo stage III cardiac involvement. Mortality before post-transplant day 100 was 10.5% (43/410) in the earlier group and 1.1% (1/89) in the later group. In the earlier group, one-quarter of transplant recipients with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) >5000 pg/mL died by 10.3 months. When serum troponin T was >0.06 ng/mL, 25% died at 3.7 months. The Mayo staging system is predictive for OS but not useful for selecting transplant recipients. Patients with serum troponin T >0.06 ng/mL or NT-proBNP >5000 pg/mL (not on dialysis) should not be considered candidates for SCT because of early mortality.