Efficacy of cisplatin-based immunochemotherapy plus alloSCT in high-risk chronic lymphocytic leukemia: final results of a prospective multicenter phase 2 HOVON study

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Abstract

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) remains the only curative option for CLL patients. Whereas active disease at the time of alloSCT predicts poor outcome, no standard remission-induction regimen exists. We prospectively assessed outcome after cisplatin-containing immune-chemotherapy (R-DHAP) followed by alloSCT in 46 patients (median age 58 years) fulfilling modified European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) CLL Transplant Consensus criteria being refractory to or relapsed (R/R) <1 year after fludarabine or <2 years after fludarabine-based immunochemotherapy or R/R with del(17p). Twenty-nine patients received ≥3 cycles of R-DHAP and sixteen <3 cycles (4 because of disease progression, 8 for toxicity and 4 toxic deaths). Overall rate of response to R-DHAP was 58%, 31 (67%) proceeded to alloSCT after conditioning with fludarabine and 2 Gy TBI. Twenty (65%) remained free from progression at 2 years after alloSCT, including 17 without minimal residual disease. Intention-to-treat 2-year PFS and overall survival of the 46 patients were 42 and 51% (35.5 months median follow-up); del(17p) or fludarabine refractoriness had no impact. R-DHAP followed by alloSCT is a reasonable treatment to be considered for high-risk CLL patients without access or resistance to targeted therapies.

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