Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-sparing T-cell depleted (TCD) hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) are presumed to be less nephrotoxic than conventional HSCTs. We evaluated incidence and risk factors for kidney failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in 231 TCD and 212 conventional HSCT recipients. Kidney failure required a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for ≥100 days anytime after 180-days post-HSCT. Two-year cumulative incidence (CI) of kidney failure was 42% in the conventional versus 31% in the TCD group (P = 0.005). TCD, age, acute kidney injury and number of toxic CNI levels all impacted on kidney failure, which was associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 2.86 (95% CI: 1.88-4.36), P<0.001). Renal recovery occurred in 28% of kidney failure patients whereas the remaining patients were defined to have CKD. In those with baseline GFR>60 ml/min/1.73 m2, only exposure to nephrotoxic medications was associated with CKD (P = 0.033). In the myeloablative-conditioning subgroup only total body irradiation was associated with CKD (P = 0.013). Of all patients, five (1.13%) required dialysis. These results confirm an impact of TCD on kidney failure but not CKD for which other risk factors such as radiation or nephrotoxic drug exposure may have a role.