The 2,6-Disubstituted Naphthalene Derivative FDDNP Labeling Reliably Predicts Congo Red Birefringence of Protein Deposits in Brain Sections of Selected Human Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Deposition of conformationally altered proteins prominently characterizes pathogenesis and pathomorphology of a number of neurodegenerative disorders. 2-(1-{6-[(2-[F-18]fluoroethyl) (methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl} ethylidene) malononitrile ([F-18]FDDNP), a hydrophobic, viscosity-sensitive, solvent-sensitive, fluorescent imaging probe has been used with positron emission tomography to visualize brain pathology in the living brain of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Its non-radiofluorinated analog FDDNP was shown to label senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in brain tissue sections. This work aimed at evaluating FDDNP labeling of various protein deposits in fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissue sections of selected neurodegenerative disorders: AD, cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), Pick disease (PiD), Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy (MSA). Cerebral hypertensive vascular hyalinosis (HVH) was used as negative control. Significant agreement between amyloid histochemical properties and FDDNP labeling of the deposits was established. FDDNP labeling showed high positive predictive value for birefringence in senile plaques and NFTs in AD, prion plaques and amyloid deposits in CAA. No FDDNP labeled structures were observed in HVH, PSP, PiD or MSA tissue sections. Our findings may be of significant value for the detection of neuropathological aggregates with [F-18]FDDNP in some of these disorders in the living brain of human subjects.

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