Update on Hypophysitis and TTF-1 Expressing Sellar Region Masses

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Abstract

This article reviews recent literature on sellar region masses that most closely mimic nonsecretory pituitary adenomas: hypophysitis, pituicytoma, spindle cell oncocytoma, and granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis. Even today, these four entities often cannot be confidently distinguished from each other clinically or by preoperative neuroimaging features. Thus, they often come to biopsy/surgical resection and require tissue confirmation of diagnosis. Causes of secondary and primary hypophysitis will be discussed, including two newly described types, IgG4 plasma cell hypophysitis and hypophysitis caused by anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody therapy for cancer. For the neoplastic conditions, emphasis will be placed on literature that has emerged since these entities were first codified in the 2007 World Health Organization fascicle. The finding that immunohistochemical staining for thyroid transcription factor-1 is shared by pituicytoma, spindle cell oncocytoma, and granular cell tumor of neurohypophysis suggests common lineage and explains why histological overlap can be encountered. We incorporate our own experiences over the last 30 years from two referral institutions with specialty practices in pituitary region masses.

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