The main aim of this review is to describe some of the many animal models that have proved to be valuable from a neuroimaging perspective. This paper complements other articles in this volume, with a focus on animal models of the pathology of human brain disorders for investigations with modern non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. The use of animal model systems forms a fundamental part of neuroscience research efforts to improve the prevention, diagnosis, understanding and treatment of neurological conditions. Without such models it would be impossible to investigate such topics as the underlying mechanisms of neuronal cell damage and death, or to screen compounds for possible anticonvulsant properties. The adequacy of any one particular model depends on the suitability of information gained during experimental conditions. It is important, therefore, to understand the various types of animal model available and choose an appropriate model for the research question.