Microbiological diagnosis of infective keratitis: comparative evaluation of direct microscopy and culture results

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Aims:To determine the sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of potassium hydroxide (KOH) wet mount, Gram stain, Giemsa stain and Kinyoun’s acid-fast stain in the diagnosis of infective keratitis.Methods:A retrospective analysis of all patients with clinically diagnosed infective keratitis presenting between September 1999 and September 2002 was carried out. Corneal scrapes were taken and subjected to direct microscopy and culture.Results:3298 eyes of 3295 consecutive patients with infective keratitis were evaluated, of which 1138 (34.51%) eyes had fungal growth alone, 1069 (32.41%) had bacterial growth alone, 33 (1%) had Acanthamoeba growth alone, 83 (2.5%) had mixed microbial growth and the remaining 975 (29.56%) had no growth. The sensitivity of KOH wet mount was higher (99.3%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 98.6 to 99.6) in the detection of fungi, 100% (95% CI 90.4 to 100) in the detection of Nocardia and 91.4% (95% CI 75.8 to 97) in the detection of Acanthamoeba) than that of Gram-stained smears (89.2% (95% CI 87.3 to 90.8) in fungi, 87% (95% CI 73.0 to 94.6) in Nocardia and 60% (95% CI 42.2 to 75.6) in the detection of Acanthamoeba) in the detection of fungi, Nocardia and Acanthamoeba. 1764 of 3295 (53.54%) patients presented more than 7 days after onset of illness and 84.69% of the eyes had corneal ulcers with size >2 mm in diameter. Positivities of KOH (44.46%; p<0.001) and Gram-stained smears (77.37%; p<0.001) were found to be higher among eyes with larger ulcers (>2 mm) than among eyes with smaller ulcers (<2 mm).Conclusion:KOH smear is of greater diagnostic value in the management of infective keratitis, and it is recommended in all clinics without exception for establishing timely treatment.

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