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To ascertain which countries in the world have retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening programmes and guidelines and how these were developed.An email database was created and requests were sent to ophthalmologists in 141 nations to complete an online survey on ROP screening in their country.Representatives from 92/141 (65%) countries responded. 78/92 (85%) have existing ROP screening programmes, and 68/78 (88%) have defined screening criteria. Some countries have limited screening and those areas which have no screening or for which there is inadequate knowledge are mainly Southeast Asia, Africa and some former Soviet states.With the increasing survival of premature babies in lower-middle-income and low-income countries, it is important to ensure that adequate ROP screening and treatment is in place. This information will help organisations focus their resources on those areas most in need.