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To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal topotecan for refractory or recurrent vitreous seeds in retinoblastoma.Intravitreal injection of topotecan hydrochloride (30 µg/0.15 mL) was provided every 3 weeks by the safety enhanced technique.The study included 17 consecutive patients with retinoblastoma with refractory or recurrent vitreous seeds. Five eyes (29%) belonged to International Classification of Retinoblastoma group C and 12 eyes (71%) belonged to group D. Primary treatment included triple drug intravenous chemotherapy for a mean of 10 cycles (median, 9 cycles; range, 6–18 cycles). Fifteen patients (88%) had undergone 56 periocular carboplatin injections with a mean of 4 injections (median, 3 injections; range, 1–8 injections), concurrent with intravenous chemotherapy. A total of 53 intravitreal topotecan injections were performed in 17 eyes of 17 consecutive patients with refractory or recurrent vitreous seeds with a mean of 3 injections (median, 3 injections; range, 2–6 injections). Complete regression of vitreous seeds was achieved in 17 of 17 eyes (100%). At a mean follow-up of 23.8 months (median, 24 months; range, 15.1–34.1 months), one eye (6%) with a recurrent retinal tumour needed enucleation, and the rest of the 16 eyes (94%) maintained complete regression. Final visual acuity could be reliably assessed in all 16 eyes (100%), of whom 12 eyes (75%) had visual acuity ≥20/200. None of the patients developed ocular or systemic complications.Three-weekly intravitreal topotecan appears effective and safe in controlling focal or diffuse refractory or recurrent vitreous seeds in retinoblastoma.