Novel mutation in the choroideremia gene and multi-Mendelian phenotypes in Spanish families


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Abstract

AimsWe aimed to accurately diagnose several retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients with complex ocular phenotypes by combining massive sequencing genetic diagnosis and powerful clinical imaging techniques.MethodsWhole-exome sequencing (WES) of selected patients from two RP families was undertaken. The variants identified were validated by Sanger sequencing and cosegregation analysis. Accurate clinical re-evaluation was performed using electrophysiological and visual field records as well as non-invasive imaging techniques, such as swept-source optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence.ResultsThe WES results highlighted one novel and one reported causative mutations in the X-linked choroideremia gene (CHM), which challenged the initial RP diagnosis. Subsequent clinical re-evaluation confirmed the choroideremia diagnosis. Carrier females showed different degrees of affectation, even between twin sisters, probably due to lyonization. A severe multi-Mendelian phenotype was associated with coincidental dominant pathogenic mutations in two additional genes: PAX6 and PDE6B.ConclusionsGenetic diagnosis via massive sequencing is instrumental in identifying causative mutations in retinal dystrophies and additional genetic variants with an impact on the phenotype. Multi-Mendelian phenotypes previously ascribed to rare syndromes can thus be dissected and molecularly diagnosed. Overall, the combination of powerful genetic diagnosis and clinical non-invasive imaging techniques enables efficient management of patients and their prioritisation for gene-specific therapies.

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