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To determine the prevalence of refractive errors in Colombia and its relations with demographic and socioeconomic variables.A cross-sectional study performed in 10 Colombian administrative districts (MIOPUR study), including children and adolescents from 8 to 17 years old and adults from 35 to 55 years old.3608 individuals (100% of whom agreed to participate) were included. Prevalence estimates of refractive errors were: hyperopia 32.3% (95% CI 30.7 to 33.8), myopia 12.9% (95% CI 11.8 to 14.0), mixed astigmatism 2.8% (95% CI 2.2 to 3.3) and anisometropia 1.9% (95% CI 1.4 to 2.3). Prevalence of myopia in 15-year-old adolescents was 14.7%. In children and adolescents, the hyperopia prevalence decreased while myopia prevalence increased with age. In the adults group, the tendency was the contrary. Myopia prevalence reached 15.7% in urban and 9.2% in rural areas, and for hyperopia, the rates were 29.4% in urban and 36.1% in rural areas. In the multivariate analysis, living in an urban area significantly increased the risk of having myopia (OR: 1.45 (1.12 to 1.89); p<0.01). There were significant regional differences among diverse zones of the country.Prevalence estimates of myopia and hyperopia in Colombia were found to be at an intermediate point compared with global data. In adults, myopia frequency was lower than in European and Asian studies. The prevalence of myopia increased during childhood and adolescence and was higher in middle-aged adults (35–39 years) than in older adults. On the other hand, hyperopia rates increased with age, findings that suggest a cohort effect. In the multivariate analysis, residence in urban areas and living in a medium-high socioeconomic status were linked to myopia.