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The detrimental actions of leptin on cardiovascular function are well established. Smith et al. report the novel finding of a reduction of infarct size by exogenous leptin when given at reperfusion. The involvement of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway in such reduction of infarct size and its relation to ischemic pre- and postconditioning are discussed and some methodological issues in its assessment are raised. Obesity has possibly opposite effects on the incidence and outcome of myocardial infarction.