The precursor of resolvin D series and aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 display anti-hyperalgesic properties in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSEResolution of inflammation is mediated by endogenous molecules with anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving activities and they have generated new possibilities for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Here, we have investigated the possible anti-hyperalgesic effects of two lipids, aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) and its precursor, 17(R)-hydroxy-4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,15E,17R,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid (17(R)HDoHE).EXPERIMENTAL APPROACHThe anti-hyperalgesic effects of both lipid mediators were evaluated, using mechanical and thermal stimuli, at different time-points in adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Cytokine levels were measured, and immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR for pro-inflammatory mediators were also performed.KEY RESULTSThe precursor of resolvin D series, 17(R)HDoHE, given systemically, inhibited the development and the maintenance of mechanical hyperalgesia in acute inflammation. Such effects were likely to be associated with modulation of both NF-κB and COX-2 in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord. 17(R)HDoHE was also effective against sub-chronic pain. Unexpectedly, repeated treatment with 17(R)HDoHE did not modify paw and joint oedema in the sub-chronic model, while joint stiffness was prevented. Notably, AT-RvD1 exhibited marked anti-hyperalgesic effects in acute inflammation when given systemically. The efficacy of long-term treatment with either 17(R)HDoHE or AT-RvD1 was partly related to decreased production of TNF-α and IL-1β in rat hind paw.CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSOur findings provide fresh evidence for the anti-hyperalgesic properties of 17(R)HDoHE and its pro-resolution metabolite AT-RvD1. Such lipid mediators might be useful for treating pain associated with acute or chronic inflammation.

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