A 12-Week Iyengar Yoga Program Improved Balance and Mobility in Older Community-Dwelling People: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

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Abstract

Background.

Exercise that challenges balance can improve mobility and prevent falls in older adults. Yoga as a physical activity option for older adults is not well studied. This trial evaluated the feasibility and effect of a 12-week Iyengar yoga program on balance and mobility in older people.

Methods.

We conducted a blinded, pilot randomized controlled trial with intention-to-treat analysis. Participants were 54 community dwellers (mean age 68 years, SD 7.1) not currently participating in yoga or tai chi. The intervention group (n = 27) participated in a 12-week, twice-weekly yoga program focused on standing postures and received a fall prevention education booklet. The control group (n = 27) received the education booklet only. Primary outcome was standing balance component of the short physical performance battery with addition of one-legged stance time (standing balance). Secondary outcomes were the timed sit-to-stand test, timed 4-m walk, one-legged stand with eyes closed, and Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International. Feasibility was measured by recording class attendance and adverse events.

Results.

Fifty-two participants completed follow-up assessments. The intervention group significantly improved compared with control group on standing balance (mean difference = 1.52 seconds, 95% CI 0.10–2.96, p = .04), sit-to-stand test (mean difference = −3.43 seconds, 95% CI −5.23 to −1.64, p < .001), 4-m walk (mean difference = −0.50 seconds, 95% CI −0.72 to −0.28, p < .001), and one-legged stand with eyes closed (mean difference = 1.93 seconds, 95% CI 0.40–3.46, p = .02). Average class attendance was 20 of 24 classes (83%). No serious adverse events occurred.

Conclusions.

This trial demonstrates the balance and mobility-related benefits and feasibility of Iyengar yoga for older people. The fall prevention effect of Iyengar yoga warrants further investigation.

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