Incidence of Hip Fracture in U.S. Nursing Homes

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Abstract

Background:

Hip fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the nursing home. Our objective was to describe the incidence rate (IR) of hip fracture according to age, sex, and race in a nationwide sample of long-stay nursing home residents.

Methods:

Using 2007–2010 Medicare claims data linked with the Minimum Data Set, we identified 892,837 long-stay residents (≥100 days in the same nursing facility) between May 1, 2007 and April 30, 2008. Hip fractures were defined using Part A diagnostic codes (ICD-9). Residents were followed from the date they became a long-stay resident until the first event of death, discharge, hip fracture, or 2 years of follow-up.

Results:

Mean age was 84 years (range 65–113 years), and 74.5% were women. 83.9% were white and 12.0% were black. The overall IR of hip fracture was 2.3/100 person years. The IR was similar in men and women across age groups. The IR of hip fracture was highest in Native Americans aged 85 years or older (3.7/100 person years), in whites (2.6/100 person years), and during the first 100 days of institutionalization (2.7/100 person years). IRs of hip fracture were lowest in blacks (1.3/100 person years).

Conclusions:

In nursing home residents surviving 100 days or more in a facility, the incidence of hip fracture is high, particularly among older white, Native American, and newly admitted residents. This is the first nationwide study to provide sex- and age-specific estimates among U.S. nursing home residents, and it underscores the magnitude of the problem.

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