Adherence to a Mediterranean-Style Diet and Appendicular Lean Mass in Community-Dwelling Older People: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II

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Abstract

Background:

Selected nutrients or food groups have often been studied with regard to long-term mortality and cardiovascular disease, whereas the relation between diet quality and appendicular lean mass (ALM) has rarely been researched.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to explore the association between a Mediterranean-style diet and ALM in community-dwelling older people.

Methods:

Cross-sectional data from the Berlin Aging Study II were available for 1,509 participants (51% women, 68.2±3.7 years). Nutrient intake was assessed using the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Food Frequency Questionnaire. Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was evaluated with the modified Mediterranean-type diet score (mMedTypeDiet). ALM was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and related to body mass index (ALM/BMI). A general linear regression model was carried out to assess the association between mMedTypeDiet score groups and ALM/BMI.

Results:

ALM/BMI was higher in women with a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet (0.64±0.1 vs 0.62±0.1 and 0.61±0.1 in low and medium adherence, retrospectively, p = .004). In the risk factor-adjusted general linear regression analysis, a higher adherence to the mMedTypeDiet was associated with higher ALM/BMI in women and better ALM/fat mass ratio when compared to a medium and a low diet quality. No significant associations were seen in men.

Conclusions:

Higher adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet was associated with a positive effect on ALM/BMI in women.

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