Continuous secondary fermentation using immobilised yeast

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An immobilised yeast, two-stage reactor system was applied to laboratory fermentations of wort. The first stage, the primary fermentation process was carried out in an up-flow gas-lift bioreactor, and in the second stage, fermentation was processed in column reactors consisting of eight packed-beds filled with both yeasts entrapped in three different polysaccharide hydrogels (calcium alginate, calcium pectate, sodium carrageenan) and with free yeast in parallel. The residence time for the two-stage immobilised system varied from 74 to 108 h.

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