A new thermophilic strain of Bacillus SPS-0 which produces thermostable xylanases was isolated from a hot spring in Portugal. Xylanase production was 50 nkat/ml in the presence of wheat bran arabinoxylan. The temperature and pH for optimum activity were 75°C and 6–9, respectively. The hydrolysis patterns demonstrated that crude xylanases yield mainly xylose and xylobiose from xylan, whereas xylose and arabinose were produced from destarched wheat bran. An increase in xylose release was observed when SPS-0 xylanase was supplemented by a ferulic acid esterase.