Biodegradation of crystal violet byPseudomonas putida

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Abstract

Crystal violet (CV), which has been extensively used as a biological stain and a commercial textile dye, is a recalcitrant molecule. A strain of Pseudomonas putida was isolated that effectively degraded CV: up to 80% of 60 μM CV as the sole carbon source, was degraded in liquid media within 1 week. Nine degradation products were isolated and identified. We propose that CV degradation occurs via a stepwise demethylation process to yield mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta- and hexa-demethylated CV species.

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