This review discusses the potential role of the anti-tumor activity of pineal melatonin for the aetiology and prevention of cancers related to life-styles in industrialized societies, e.g. frequent long-distance flights as well as chronic night shift work leading to circadian disturbances of neuroendocrine parameters including melatonin. Experimental studies show that melatonin controls not only the growth of well-differentiated cancers, but also possesses anti-carcinogenic properties. Therefore, it is plausible that disturbances of circadian melatonin rhythmicity could be functionally involved in elevated cancer risks among aircrew members and nurses frequently working on night shifts. Due to the suppression of melatonin by light it can be assumed that too much artificial light at night could, at least in part, be responsible for generally increasing rates of e.g. breast cancer in industrialized countries. It is discussed under which conditions a transient substitutional therapy with melatonin could be justified or which forms of living could help to physiologically foster melatonin secretion to optimise control over cancerous growth and development.