Management Algorithm in Pulmonary Atresia With Intact Ventricular Septum

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Abstract

Pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum (PAIVS) is a disease with remarkable morphologic variability, affecting not only the pulmonary valve but also the tricuspid valve, the RV cavity and coronary arteries. With advances in interventional techniques and congenital heart surgery, the management of PAIVS continues to evolve. This review is an attempt at providing a practical approach to the management of this disease. The basis of our approach is morphologic classification as derived from echocardiography and angiography. Group A, patients with good sized RV and membranous atresia, the primary procedure at presentation is radiofrequency (RF) valvotomy. Often it is the only procedure required in this group with the most favourable outcome. Patients with severely hypoplastic RV (Group C) are managed along the lines of hearts with single ventricle physiology. The treatment at presentation is patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stenting with balloon atrial septostomy or conventional modified Blalock Taussig (BT) shunt. Bidirectional Glenn shunt may be done 6-12 months later followed by Fontan completion after a suitable interval. Patients in Group B, the intermediate group, are those with borderline RV size, usually with attenuated trabecular component but well developed infundibulum. The treatment at presentation is RF valvotomy and PDA stenting ± balloon atrial septostomy. Surgical re-interventions are not uncommonly required viz. bidirectional Glenn shunt when the RV fails to grow adequately (1½ - ventricle repair) and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction for subvalvar obstruction or small pulmonary annulus. Catheter based interventions viz. repeat balloon dilatation or device closure of patent foramen ovale (PFO) may also be required in some patients.

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