Predictors of Restenosis After Treatment of Bifurcational Lesions with Paclitaxel Eluting Stents: A multicenter prospective registry of 150 consecutive patients

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Abstract

Objectives:

The aim of the study was the assessment of the clinical, angiographic and procedural characteristics correlated with freedom from adverse events at 1 year in a real life setting of consecutive bifurcation lesions.

Background:

Even if stent implantation has shown to be superior to conventional balloon angioplasty in most coronary lesions, bifurcation treatment with stent implantation both in main and in side branch (SB) still raises controversy.

Methods:

We reviewed the results obtained in a prospective multicenter registry of 150 patients with 158 bifurcation lesions involving a SB of sufficient diameter to be treated, if necessary, with a polymer based paclitaxel eluting stent (PES, TAXUS). Two stents were used in 118 lesions (74.7%). Final kissing balloon inflation was performed in 87/118 lesions (73.7%) and in 30/40 lesions (75.0%) of the 2 and 1 stent group respectively.

Results:

At 1-year clinical follow-up we observed 4 stent thromboses, all involving the SBs of the 2 stents group (2.7%). Unlike previous reports, revascularization involved the main vessel in the majority of patients (21/150, 14.0%). After an exploratory multivariable analysis the only parameter predictive of target lesion revascularization (TLR) (HR 0.52; CI 95% 0.11–0.86; p = 0.02) and target vessel revascularization (TVR) (HR 0.47; CI 95% 0.14–0.90; p = 0.03) was postprocedural main branch minimal lumen diameter (MB-MLD).

Conclusions:

In a real life setting of consecutive bifurcation lesions, thrombosis rate, concentrated in the SB and the 2-stents group, and need for target lesion revascularization remain higher than in less complex lesion subgroups treated with PES. No differences in immediate success and TLR were observed between 2 stents and 1 stent groups. The frequently observed suboptimal stent expansion and final MB-MLD predict 1 year revascularization.

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