Transhepatic Vascular Access for Diagnostic and Interventional Procedures: Techniques, Outcome, and Complications

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Early or multiple cardiac catheterizations may result in occlusion of the femoral veins prohibiting their use. The internal jugular or sub-clavian approach may be an appropriate alternative. However, these approaches may not be suitable in patients with surgical interruption of the superior vena cava. In other patients, they may not allow easy access to certain areas of the heart. The transhepatic approach is an important alternative route for performing cardiac catheterization and interventions. Depending on the planned procedure, it may be the preferred route to perform the cardiac catheterization even in the presence of patent femoral veins. The indications, technical details and potential complications of this approach are discussed.

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