To evaluate the biological effect of a paclitaxel-coated balloon (PCB) technology on vascular drug distribution and healing in drug eluting stent restenosis (DES-ISR) swine model.Background:
The mechanism of action and healing response via PCB technology in DES-ISR is not completely understood.Methods:
A total of 27 bare metal stents were implanted in coronary arteries and 30 days later the in-stent restenosis was treated with PCB. Treated segments were harvested at 1 hr, 14 days and 30 days post treatment for the pharmacokinetic analysis. In addition, 24 DES were implanted in coronary arteries for 30 days, then all DES-ISRs were treated with either PCB (n = 12) or uncoated balloon (n = 12). At day 60, vessels were harvested for histology following angiography and optical coherence tomography (OCT).Results:
The paclitaxel level in neointimal tissue was about 18 times higher (P = 0.0004) at 1 hrCmax, and retained about five times higher (P = 0.008) at day 60 than that in vessel wall. A homogenous distribution of paclitaxel in ISR was demonstrated by using fluorescently labeled paclitaxel. Notably, in DES-ISR, both termination OCT and quantitative coronary angioplasty showed a significant neointimal reduction and less late lumen loss (P = 0.05 andP = 0.03, respectively) post PCB versus post uncoated balloon. The PES-ISR + PCB group displayed higher levels of peri-strut inflammation and fibrin scores compared to the -limus DES-ISR + PCB group.Conclusions:
In ISR, paclitaxel is primarily deposited in neointimal tissue and effectively retained over time following PCB use. Despite the presence of metallic struts, a uniform distribution was characterized. PCB demonstrated an equivalent biological effect in DES-ISR without significantly increasing inflammation.