Esophageal perforation caused by an AMPLATZERTM vascular plug 4 occlusion device

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Abstract

The AMPLATZERTM Vascular Plug 4 (AVP4) is a self-expandable, replaceable occluder made of Nitinol wire mesh, which allows the safe and effective interventional occlusion of medium size vessels. This report describes an infant diagnosed with pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and multifocal collateral lung perfusion through four major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). A central aorto-pulmonary shunt was performed at 4 months of age. Because of postoperative pulmonary hyperperfusion, one of the MAPCAs was closed interventionally using a 5 mm AVP4. This MAPCA originated from the descending aorta (DAO) near the fifth thoracic vertebra and ran behind the esophagus to the lower lobe of the right lung. The MAPCA was closed near its origin from the DAO. Four weeks later, the patient presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding, caused by perforation of the AVP4 into the esophagus. The occluder was extracted surgically, the MAPCA was clipped and the esophageal injury was sutured. To date, there have been no reports describing esophageal perforation due to an AVP4. The perforation in this patient may have been due to implantation of the AVP4 near the aorta in a MAPCA segment located directly in front of the spine and behind the esophagus. Another possible factor may have been the requirement for a gastrointestinal feeding tube. Although the occluder is soft and flexible, the spindle-shaped ends may cause trauma if they are located close to other structures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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