Simultaneous kissing stents to treat unprotected left main stem coronary artery bifurcation disease; stent expansion, vessel injury, hemodynamics, tissue healing, restenosis, and repeat revascularization

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Abstract

Objectives:

To perform detailed analysis of stent expansion, vessel wall stress, hemodynamics, re-endothelialization, restenosis, and repeat PCI in the simultaneous kissing stents (SKS) technique of bifurcation left main stem (LMS) stenting.

Background:

The SKS technique is useful to treat patients with true bifurcation disease of the LMS but remains controversial.

Methods and Results:

Computational structural analysis of SKS expansion demonstrated undistorted and evenly expanded stents. Computational fluid dynamics modelling revealed largely undisturbed blood flow. 239 PCI procedures were performed on 217 patients with unprotected bifurcation LMS disease with SKS using DES (2004-2017). We electively studied 13 stable patients from baseline to 10 years post-SKS with repeat angiography and optical coherence tomography, and demonstrated tissue coverage of the stent struts at the carina, with no evidence of lacunae behind the stents. We studied all patients with symptomatic recurrence. Target lesion revascularization rate was 3.2% at 1 year and 4.6% at 2 years. Of all 20 patients with restenosis, the site was the LMS-Cx stent in 7, the LMS-LAD stent in 2 and both in 11. Two-year recurrence rate was 7/32 (5.3%) for first, and 4/108 (3.7%) for second generation DES. Treatment with repeat kissing techniques was undertaken in 19/20, with sustained clinical results with re-SKS.

Conclusion:

The SKS technique for treating unprotected LMS bifurcation disease does not distort the stents, is associated with favorable hemodynamics, tissue coverage of the exposed struts, and a low restenosis rate when performed with contemporary stents. Re-PCI with repeat SKS appears feasible, safe, and durable.

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