Morphological Transformation of Giant-Cell Tumor of Bone After Treatment with Denosumab: A Case Report

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Denosumab, an inhibitor of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand), was recently introduced for the treatment of giant-cell tumor of bone (GCTB). We describe the clinical, radiographic, and histological features of a GCTB of the spine in a 24-year-old woman that progressed after neoadjuvant treatment with denosumab. Disappearance of the multinuclear osteoclastic giant cells was accompanied by newly formed woven bone, which was deposited in interconnected strands with a prominent fibrovascular stroma that was histologically and radiographically similar to that of an osteoblastoma.


Pathologists, radiologists, and surgeons should be aware of this post-treatment transformation to avoid misdiagnosis.

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