Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common finding in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and it is associated with poor outcomes. It is the result of incomplete systolic closure of the mitral valve (MV) as a consequence of left ventricular dilatation, papillary muscle displacement with impaired systolic shortening, and mitral leaflet tethering. MV surgery may be performed in cases of significant secondary MR despite guideline-directed medical therapy. However, MV repair, which is most commonly performed with an undersized ring annuloplasty, is associated with a 30–60% recurrence of moderate or greater MR at mid-term follow-up. To improve MV repair durability, several adjunctive subvalvular procedures have been proposed, one of which is the addition of papillary muscle approximation utilizing a papillary muscle sling. Recent studies comparing the outcomes of a conventional undersized ring annuloplasty with a MV repair utilizing a papillary muscle sling have reported a significant reduction in recurrent moderate or severe MR, greater left ventricular reverse remodeling, and improved MV apparatus geometry with the addition of the papillary muscle sling. We present a comprehensive review of the pathophysiology of secondary MR, and the rationale and clinical outcomes of MV repair with papillary muscle sling placement for the treatment of secondary MR.