Cardiac Rupture: New Features of the Old Disease

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Abstract

Objectives:

Myocardial rupture is a rare but a fatal complication of acute myocardial infarction. During recent years, treatment strategies of acute myocardial infarction have changed. Primary percutaneous coronary interventions have replaced fibrinolytic therapy, thus reducing one of the major risk factors for myocardial rupture. In this work, we describe a group of patients who suffered myocardial rupture, none of whom were treated with thrombolytic therapy.

Methods:

The digital database of our hospital was searched for all patients who experienced myocardial rupture between 2008 and 2015. The demographic, clinical, angiographic and echocardiographic data of these patients were analyzed.

Results:

Out of 2,380 patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, 12 (0.5%) developed myocardial rupture. The mean age was 78 years, and there were 7 males and 5 females. Ten patients already had pericardial effusion on admission. Seven patients underwent coronary angiography, whilst primary percutaneous intervention was performed in 4 patients. Six patients entered the operating room and all survived the procedure. All patients who were treated conservatively died due to rupture. Factors related to the treatment strategy were advanced age (≥90 years) and cognitive impairment.

Conclusions:

The risk of myocardial rupture may be diminished by primary coronary intervention during myocardial infarction, but mortality remains high. An early, comprehensive echocardiographic examination and rapid surgery may contribute to improved survival.

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