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Whilst physical activity is linked to cardiovascular health, it has lately been recognized that different types of exercise exert diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Therefore, we investigated the acute effects of continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CAE) and high-intensity interval aerobic exercise (hIAE) on arterial function and inflammation.Twenty healthy men (mean age 22.6 ± 3.3 years) were recruited in this crossover study. Each of the 20 volunteers participated in two separate sessions (hIAE and CAE). The augmentation index (AIx) of aortic pressure waveforms and serum levels of interleukin-17 (IL-17) were measured before and after each exercise session.There were no significant differences in baseline hemodynamic and inflammatory measurements before CAE and hIAE. Compared to baseline, AIx was significantly improved after CAE (p = 0.04), while there was no significant change after hIAE (p = 0.65). Serum levels of IL-17 were significantly elevated after CAE (p = 0.042), while hIAE had no significant effect on IL-17 levels (p = 0.47). Interestingly, there was an inverse association between the elevation of IL-17 levels and the AIx improvement after CAE (p = 0.05).These findings provide additional evidence concerning the cardiovascular effects of different types of exercise training through modification of peripheral hemodynamics and the inflammatory process.