Heart Failure with Recovered Ejection Fraction in a Cohort of Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

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Abstract

Objective:

The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with heart failure (HF) who recover left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), termed here as ‘Rec-HF’, have a distinct clinical profile and prognosis compared with patients with HF and reduced LVEF (HF-REF) or HF and preserved LVEF (HF-PEF).

Methods:

We evaluated and classified patients from the Spanish Heart Failure Registry into three categories based on enrollment/follow-up echocardiograms: HF-PEF (LVEF ≥50%), HF-REF (LVEF persistently <50%) and Rec-HF (LVEF on enrollment <50% but normalized during follow-up).

Results:

A total of 1,202 patients were included, 1,094 with HF-PEF, 81 with HF-REF and 27 with Rec-HF. The three groups included patients of advanced age (mean age 75 years) with comorbidities. Rec-HF patients were younger, with a better functional status, lower prevalence of diabetes mellitus, dementia and cerebrovascular disease, and higher prevalence of COPD. The etiology of HF was more frequently ischemic and alcoholic and less frequently hypertensive. After a median follow-up of 367 days, the unadjusted hazard ratios for death in the Rec-HF versus HF-PEF and HF-REF groups were 0.11 (95% CI 0.02–080; p = 0.029) and 0.31 (95% CI 0.04–2.5; p = 0.274). Results were statistically nonsignificant in multivariate-adjusted models.

Conclusion:

Rec-HF is also present in elderly patients with HF but it is necessary to further investigate the natural history and optimal pharmacologic management of this ‘new HF syndrome’.

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