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Objectives: Bone marrow-derived cells (BMCs) have recently been identified to play a vital role in repairing damaged myocardium; however, it is not known whether or not mobilization of BMCs is involved in the pathogenesis of acute viral myocarditis (VMC). Thus, we analyzed the expression of CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cells and vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1) in a murine model of acute VMC. Methods: Male BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally infected with coxsackievirus B3 to establish acute VMC. The frequency of CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cells in the heart, peripheral blood, and bone marrow was examined by flow cytometry 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after injection. Cardiac VCAM-1 and pathology scores were determined by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial VCAM-1, IL-1β, and TNF-α were analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blot. Results: In mice with acute VMC, the CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cell population in the heart was significantly increased by day 7 and then decreased; in contrast, the CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cell population decreased in the bone marrow and peripheral blood by day 3 and then increased. High expression of VCAM-1 was detected in the heart in parallel with CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cell expression. Conclusions: In mice with acute VMC, VCAM-1-induced CD45+CD34+VLA-4+ cell mobilization into the injured heart is involved in the repair of injured myocardium.