The importance of definitive histological subclassification has increased as drug trials have shown benefit associated with histology in nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The acuity of this problem is further exacerbated by the use of minimally invasive cytology samples. Here we describe the development and validation of a 4-protein classifier that differentiates primary lung adenocarcinomas (AC) from squamous cell carcinomas (SCC).METHODS:
Quantitative immunofluorescence (AQUA) was employed to measure proteins differentially expressed between AC and SCC followed by logistic regression analysis. An objective 4-protein classifier was generated to define likelihood of AC in a training set of 343 patients followed by validation in 2 independent cohorts (n = 197 and n = 235). The assay was then tested on 11 cytology specimens.RESULTS:
Statistical modeling selected thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), CK5, CK13, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to generate a weighted classifier and to identify the optimal cutpoint for differentiating AC from SCC. Using the pathologist's final diagnosis as the criterion standard, the molecular test showed a sensitivity of 96% and specificity of 93%. Blinded analysis of the validation sets yielded sensitivity and specificity of 96% and 97%, respectively. Our assay classified the cytology specimens with a specificity of 100% and sensitivity of 87.5%.CONCLUSIONS:
Molecular classification of NSCLC using an objective quantitative test can be highly accurate and could be translated into a diagnostic platform for broad clinical application. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.
The authors developed a 4-protein quantitative assay that predicts adenocarcinoma histology with high accuracy; our test could be broadly used as a diagnostic platform.