PMH 9907: Long-Term Outcomes of a Randomized Phase 3 Study of Short-Term Bicalutamide Hormone Therapy and Dose-Escalated External-Beam Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

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Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The role of hormone therapy (HT) with dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy (DE-EBRT) in the treatment of intermediate-risk prostate cancer (IRPC) remains controversial. The authors report the long-term outcome of a phase 3 study of DE-EBRT with or without HT for patients with localized prostate cancer (LPC).

METHODS:

From 1999 to 2006, 252 of an intended 338 patients with LPC were randomized to receive DE-EBRT with or without 5 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent bicalutamide 150 mg once daily. The study was closed early because of contemporary concerns surrounding bicalutamide. The primary outcome was biochemical failure (BF) incidence, and the secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), local control (LC), and quality of life. The BF and OS rates were estimated using the cumulative incidence function and Kaplan-Meier methods and were compared using the Gray test and the log-rank test.

RESULTS:

Eleven patients were excluded from analysis. Characteristics were well balanced in each treatment arm. Ninety-five percent of patients had IRPC. The prescribed dose increased from 75.6 grays (Gy) in 42 fractions to 78 Gy in 39 fractions over the period. At a median follow-up of 9.1 years, 98 BFs occurred, with no significant effect of HT versus no HT on the BF rate (40% vs 47%; P = .32), the OS rate (82% vs 86%; P = .37), the LC rate (52% vs 48 %; P = .32) or quality of life, in the patients who completed the questionnaires. Dose escalation to 75.6 Gy versus >75.6 Gy reduced the BF rate by 26% (P = .004).

CONCLUSIONS:

For patients who predominantly have IRPC, the addition of HT to DE-EBRT did not significantly affect BF, OS, or LC. Bicalutamide appeared to be well tolerated. The conclusions from the study are limited by incomplete recruitment.

The PMH 9907 trial was a randomized study assessing the outcome of dose-escalated external-beam radiotherapy with or without 5 months neoadjuvant and concurrent bicalutamide 150 mg once daily for 252 patients with localized prostate cancer. After a median follow-up of 9.1 years, a nonsignificant 7% difference in the biochemical failure rate is reported in favor of combination therapy.

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