Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, occurs in the posterior fossa, the part of the intracranial cavity that contains the brainstem and the cerebellum. The cerebellum is involved in many complex aspects of human behavior and function, and when it is disrupted or insulted, this can lead to significant sequelae in children with posterior fossa tumors. A constellation of impairing and distressing symptoms, including mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, develops in approximately 25% of children after the surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors. These symptoms may impede treatment and frequently require intervention in order for children to be able to participate in their care. The eventual recovery of speech occurs for most, but with slowly improving dysarthria over many months. Behavioral changes and emotional lability also occur. This phenomenon has been classified differently by different investigators over the past 35 years. For the purposes of this article, the term posterior fossa syndrome is used to refer to the neuropsychiatric and behavioral features that compose this condition. The current review summarizes the development of the clinical understanding of this phenomenon with a focus on near- and long-term psychosocial and psychiatric implications. Also, clinical examples of the presentation, management, and lasting implications of this syndrome are provided. This review is intended to be a resource for clinicians who treat affected children.
Posterior fossa syndrome is a constellation of impairing and distressing symptoms, including mutism, ataxia/hypotonia, and emotional lability, that develop in approximately 25% of children after the surgical resection of posterior fossa tumors. The identification and treatment of children with posterior fossa syndrome can lead to improvements in their overall quality of life.